Art and Design
Techniques used to create a 3-D form from clay include coiling, pinching, slab construction and sculpting. Carving, slip and scoring can be used to attach extra pieces of clay. Mark making can be used to add detail to 3-D forms.f
To build this knowledge children observe a range of perfume bottles, looking at shape, function and form, designing a fabulous bottle which could hold a magical potion, using a sketchbook to develop ideas about shape, colour, form and pattern and creating bottles using clay and finish by glazing.
Materials, techniques and visual elements, such as line, tone, shape, pattern, colour and form, can be combined to create a range of effects.
To build this knowledge children: Create large scale and collaborative canvas art using melted wax crayons. Melt crayons over a canvas using heat from a hairdryer and watch them mix to form new colours and textures. Work into the wax whilst soft to spread, print and add pattern. Use artistic and scientific language to describe the processes taking place.
Artwork has been used at different times and in different cultures to express ideas about storytelling, religion and intellectual satisfaction. Similarities and differences between artwork can include the subject matter, style and use of colour, texture, line and tone.
To build this knowledge children: Look at the painting The Love Potion by Evelyn de Morgan and discuss the story that the artist is trying to tell. Compare to other paintings that show scenes of love and love potions, such as The Lovers by Rene Magritte, The Kiss by Edvard Munch and the John William Waterhouse painting Tristan and Isolde with the Potion. Think and talk to each other about the stories that the paintings communicate.
Different materials and components have a range of properties, making them suitable for different tasks. It is important to select the correct material or component for the specific purpose, depending on the design criteria. Recipe ingredients have different tastes and appearances. They look and taste better and are cheaper when in season.
To build this knowledge children: Follow instructions to make homemade bath bombs using essential oils, such as bergamot, chamomile, ginger, lavender and lemon. See what happens when they are placed in the water tray and watch their bombs for what scientific processes are occurring.
Design features are the aspects of a product's design that the designer would like to emphasise, such as the use of a particular material or feature that makes the product easier to use or more durable.
To build this knowledge children: Look at a range of everyday items that contain gases. Explain how the gas has been used to suit the purpose of the item, or how the properties of the gas make the product hazardous. Use a simple data table to record their thinking. Items could include a fizzy drink, deodorant or a bike tyre. Ask questions to promote scientific thinking, such as ‘Why does a squirt of air freshener make the whole room smell better? Why is smoking a cigarette harmful to people around the smoker? Why does a football bounce higher than a bowling ball?’
Useful tools for cutting include scissors, craft knives, junior hacksaws with pistol grip and bench hooks. Useful tools for joining include glue guns. Tools should only be used with adult supervision and safety rules must be followed.
To build this knowledge children: Make chocolate love hearts. Melt chocolate, adding additional ingredients for taste, such as finely grated orange peel, raisins or vanilla essence. Tie a ribbon around their heart and take it home with a message of love for a friend or family member. The hearts could be the antidote for the deadly potion. When melting the chocolate, children measure the temperature at which it melts.
Evaluation can be done by considering whether the product does what it was designed to do, whether it has an attractive appearance, what changes were made during the making process and why the changes were made. Evaluation also includes suggesting improvements and explaining why they should be made.
To build this knowledge children: Make ice cream, ice pops or lollies, deciding upon which flavours and colours they would like to add. Experiment with colours, flavours, ingredients and shapes, the wackier, the better. Take digital photographs of their creations before eating and Present, to the group, how they made their product, evaluating their success and describing how they might improve their product, using their digital images to create a mouth watering display.
Questions can help us find out about the world and can be answered using scientific enquiry.
To build this knowledge children: Lay out a trail of intriguing items for the children to discover. This might include playing cards, a top hat, a picture of Alice or a jam tart. Invite children to speculate on how these items might be connected. The final item to be discovered should be a mysterious bottle marked ‘Drink me’. Discuss what the bottle might contain and whether it would be safe to taste. Decide as a group what to do with the bottle.
Materials can be grouped according to whether they are solids, liquids or gases. Solids stay in one place and can be held. Some solids can be squashed, bent, twisted and stretched. Examples of solids include wood, metal, plastic and clay. Liquids move around (flow) easily and are difficult to hold. Liquids take the shape of the container in which they are held. Examples of liquids include water, juice and milk. Gases spread out to fill the available space and cannot be held. Examples of gases include oxygen, helium and carbon dioxide. Air is a mixture of gases.
To build this knowledge children: Sort empty packaging for a range of household products, such as cleaning liquids, detergents, soap, washing tablets, medicines, bubble bath, shaving foam, aerosols, eye drops, bottled water, juice and mouthwash, into groups of solids, liquids and gases encouraging the children to explain their reasons for sorting in any particular way and take digital images of different groupings to create a classroom display.
Scientific enquiries can be set up and carried out by following or planning a method. A prediction is a statement about what might happen in an investigation, based on some prior knowledge or understanding. A fair test is one in which only one variable is changed and all others remain constant.
To build this knowledge children: Test the rates at which liquids flow (viscosity) down a ramp or sloping piece of guttering. Time how long it takes for five different fluids to reach the bottom. The selection might include lemonade, oil, double cream, washing up liquid, treacle and ketchup. Decide what to measure and identify the factors that would make it a fair test. Record results using diagrams, tables and charts. Throw in a wild card, the non-Newtonian liquid, cornflour and water. How does it behave?
Equipment is used to take measurements in standard units. Knowledge of data loggers plus sensors, timers (seconds, minutes and hours), thermometers (°C), and metre sticks, rulers or trundle wheels (millimetres, centimetres, metres).
To build this knowledge children: Measure temperatures using degrees Celsius (°C). Make predictions about the temperatures of different jars or cups of water, including those labelled ‘iced water’, ‘room temperature water’ and ‘hand hot water’. Use a thermometer or data logger with a temperature sensor, to take accurate temperature readings and record findings on simple graphs or charts. Children will be stimulated into scientific and mathematical thinking with questions, such as ‘How close was the temperature to your prediction? What was the difference in degrees between your prediction and actual temperature?
Results are information, such as data or observations, that have been found out from an investigation. A conclusion is the answer to a question that uses the evidence collected.
To build this knowledge children: Observe the chemical reaction when a heart shaped or red balloon is inflated using vinegar and bicarbonate of soda. Children consider how to affect the size or inflation speed by changing variables, such as temperature of water or amount of bicarbonate of soda. What other variables might affect the outcome?
Use scientific books, websites and models to research how particles are typically arranged and move in solids, liquids and gases, using diagrams to illustrate how particles of different materials vary in size and explaining how this affects the materials' properties and behaviour.
Children experiment by using marbles and a circular lipped tray to demonstrate. Fill completely with marbles for a solid, less for a liquid and a few for a gas. How do the particles move? How does this reflect what a solid, liquid or gas can do?
Take part in a science quiz on the theme of solids, liquids and gases, drawing on their experiences to support their answers and explanations. Work individually, in teams to mark their answers and evaluate their success, as well as things that they need to remember.
An observation involves looking closely at objects, materials and living things. Observations can be made regularly to identify changes over time.
To build this knowledge children: Fill some balloons with air, some with water and freeze some. Investigate the properties of each state by manipulating the balloons and using scientific vocabulary to describe their properties. Play with the balloons, drawing scientific conclusions about the properties of solids, liquids and gases using displayed keywords as prompts. Try weighing the water and ice balloons, considering which weighs more and why.
Heating or cooling materials can bring about a change of state. This change of state can be reversible or irreversible. The temperature at which materials change state varies depending on the material. Water changes state from solid (ice) ⇌ liquid (water) at 0°C and from liquid (water) ⇌ gas (water vapour) at 100°C. The process of changing from a solid to liquid is called melting. The reverse process of changing from a liquid to a solid is called freezing. The process of changing from a liquid to a gas is called evaporation. The reverse process of changing from a gas to a liquid is called condensation.
To build this knowledge children: Use a kettle to investigate what happens when water is boiled. Describe what happens in the heating and cooling water investigation, recording observations in a scientific report with diagrams or photographs.
Relevant historical information can be presented as written texts, tables, diagrams, captions and lists.
To build this knowledge children: Use a range of historical source materials to find out about how potions were used in the past for both everyday medicinal and magical reasons. Make potions using a range of herbs and ingredients known for their mystical or medicinal properties. Write a description of their potion and its historical usage.
New computing software commonly has features that should be familiar to users, such as icons or terminology.
To build this knowledge children: Create a PowerPoint presentation to summarise a favourite aspect of the project, such as solids, liquids, gases, potions, scientists or magic. Use search engines to access information, check references and download images and web links.
Manipulating a range of text, images, sound or video clips and animation may include changing their style, size, colour, effect, shape, location or format.
To build this knowledge children: Look at the layouts of online shopping sites. Create a template for an online supplies catalogue for witches and wizards. Show all of the available potions or equipment available, with pictures and detailed descriptions of each. Create an imaginative company name for their online catalogue.
Predict what might happen from details stated in the text, giving some examples.
To develop this skill children: Read the first chapter of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, pausing at the point where Alice discovers a bottle marked ‘Drink me’. Predict what might happen next. Highlight words used by Lewis Carroll to describe Alice and consider what her actions tell us about her character. Role play Alice’s dilemma in pairs. Make a list of adjectives to describe Alice. What can we infer about her character from the text?
Retrieve and record information from age-appropriate fiction and non-fiction texts, deciding on an appropriate level of detail for their purpose.
To develop this skill children: Read labels on empty bottles, containers and boxes for a range of household substances, such as washing powder, cleaning fluid, soaps, bubble baths, aerosols and other liquids. Identify the different types of information given, with particular attention to the language used for safety instructions. Make a list of any imperative verbs, powerful words and symbols that the packaging uses to make the safety instructions more effective. Children explain their groupings and consider ‘Which substances are harmful? How do you know? Where do you think that these substances should be stored in the home?’
They also read a range of first-hand historical accounts of dentistry or surgery undertaken without anaesthetic. Make notes on things which shock or surprise them. Compare medical treatments in the past to today, referring back to the interview notes taken.
Read and discuss examples of a range of non-chronological reports on solids, liquids and gases. Note key features observed and feed these back to the class, creating a class checklist that can be used when producing their reports.
Begin to collect facts, figures and information on solids, liquids and gases that could be included in a non-chronological report. Use a range of non-fiction books and other resources to collect their information. Refer back to previous learning for additional and first-hand information.
Children record their ideas and information in a way that suits them best. This might be as a mind map, a list, notes or using ICT.
Listen to, read independently and discuss a range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction, reference books and textbooks, making increasingly effective contributions in turn that show their understanding.
To develop this skill children: Listen to or read a simplified version of the story of Romeo and Juliet. Take part in discussions about the story, particularly the tragic ending. Consider questions, such as 'What was the effect of the potion in the story? 'Focus on the tragedy of the death scene and discuss the significance of the potion.
Make some choices about vocabulary and sentence structure.
To develop this skill children: Make a safety label for Alice’s bottle. Think about any symbols and language that could and should have been used, including use of imperative verbs. Use numbers or bullet points to order their instructions and symbols, to make sure that the message is clear and easy to understand, Modelling features of instructional language, such as ‘Do not use on sensitive, highlighting the use of symbols, colour, font, upper and lower case and graphics for emphasis.
Assess the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing, suggesting and making changes to grammar and vocabulary to improve consistency.
To develop this skill children: Transfer their labels from paper to sticky labels that can be displayed on a range of empty bottles and boxes and use these as part of a classroom display. Before designing a final copy, swap with a partner to check their work, making any amendments to ensure that their message is as clear as possible. Invite the school Health and Safety representative to view their labels and provide feedback about their effectiveness and consideration how they might turn their ideas into a radio or TV advert as part of a wider safety advertising campaign.
Read their work aloud to help them to hear where changes are needed. Work with a partner to refine and edit their work. Work in pairs to review the effectiveness of their alternative endings. Evaluate their success in making the scene funny, tragic, happy or strange. Make final amendments and use ICT to create a presentation copy for display. How could they make their writing more dramatic?
Work in pairs to refine and edit their letters, adding in more gruesome facts or phrases for effect. Suggest ways in which each other’s writing could be improved, including spelling and grammar corrections and use of a thesaurus.
Make increasingly detailed notes on a range of given planning formats, using similar writing to support with structure, vocabulary and grammar.
To develop this skill children: Read the spell from Macbeth Act IV, Scene 1: ‘Double, double, toil and trouble’. Begin to draft ideas for a spell of their own, beginning by writing a list of rhyming ingredients highlighting the composition of the spell, including the use of rhyming couplets. Ask the children to think of rhyming ingredients and model the composition of a rhyming couplet.
Imagine that a group of aliens have contacted school, wanting to find out the potential of Earth as a place to live. They have asked particularly about states of matter on our planet and would like some information about this. Plan ideas for a non-chronological report, set out in paragraphs, explaining what solids, liquids and gases are and how they are used in everyday life. Explain that the aliens do not have water on their planet and are curious to find out about its remarkable properties.
Make some choices about vocabulary and sentence structure.
To develop this skill children: Use their list of rhyming ingredients to create pairs of rhyming couplets. What outcome do they want from their spell? What magical, strange or gruesome effects will their spell have on the taker?
Discuss ideas for an alternative ending to the play. Perhaps something happier, or even a funny ending? Suppose a different potion was used – what might be the effects? Draft ideas for an alternative ending to the story, starting from the potion scene, in the form of a play script.
Read aloud their own writing to a group or the whole class, using appropriate intonation and controlling their tone and volume so that the meaning is clear.
To develop this skill children: Work in groups of three to create a chorus or connecting couplet that links each poem. Practise rehearsing and connecting individual poems to create a joint performance. Where possible, learn poems by heart to enable a polished performance.
Children watch film and video performances of this scene from Macbeth. How do the characters interact? Continue to write and refine their play scripts. Act out finished versions in class, using character voices to bring their scripts to life.
Practise reading their reports aloud, checking that they make sense and flow well. Record their reports and place recordings in a capsule to send to the aliens. Consider any last minute changes that can be made to improve the reports before recording.
Describe settings and characters in detail and create well-developed plots, using inverted commas and other punctuation to indicate direct speech.
To develop this skill children: Retell the main events of the story of Romeo and Juliet using a storyboard. Work together in groups to draft a sentence or speech bubble for each part of the storyboard sequence.
Use a range of organisational devices effectively to structure non-narrative writing.
To develop this skill children: Create a timeline showing the history of anaesthesia, using the web and other source materials to locate information. Create information cards for each step on the timeline. Children should read a range of resources to research facts. You may need to highlight and help them to compare conflicting accounts.
Imagine that they are a doctor having just observed the first demonstration of surgery using ether. Write a letter to their fellow doctors, describing what they have seen and explaining the effects of using anaesthetic.
Work in detail on the organisation of paragraphs in their report, using headings and subheadings to organise information. Model an introductory paragraph that uses these devices. Ask the children to suggest ways to grab the aliens’ interest right from the start.
English Spoken Language
Ask a series of questions to speculate, imagine and explore ideas.
To develop this skill children: Interview a parent or member of staff who has undergone medical or dental treatment under anesthetic, or a medical professional with knowledge of patient care during operations. Prepare questions to ask and take notes before recalling significant points of the interview and list as bullet points.
Use expression and intonation to emphasise grammar, punctuation or character when reading or speaking aloud.
To develop this skill children: Invite some younger children to take part in witch or wizard training. Take on the roles of wizard or witch teachers and dress up. Demonstrate how to recite spells and mix potions. Help younger children to recite the spells expressively.